Carbon Cycle

The bio geochemical cycle of carbon atoms brought about mainly by living things.

Carbon Dioxide

A colourless gas produced when carbon is burned in a sufficient supply of oxygen to complete the reaction C + O2 > CO2.

Carbon Monoxide

An invisible, tasteless, odourless and highly poisonous gas.

Carcinogenic Compounds

Complex chemical compounds producing cancer in experimental animals and strongly suspected of contributing to lung cancer in humans.


Any malignant cancer that arises from epithelial cells.


An animal or plant that feeds on and digests animal substances as a source of food.

Catadromous fish

Catadromous fish spend most of their lives in fresh water, then, after reaching sexual maturity, migrate to the sea to breed.


A region or drainage basin which the natural landscape collects all the rainwater that falls on it.


Any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms.

Clean Fuel

Fuels which have lower emissions than conventional gasoline and diesel.


Treatment, remediation, or destruction of contaminated material.


A logging technique in which all trees are removed from an area, with no regard for long-term forest health.


A logging technique in which all vegetation is removed from an area, with no regard for long-term forest health.



The weather of a place or region averaged over a long period of time.

Coal Seam Gas

CSG - Is natural gas, trapped in underground coal seams by water and ground pressure. Its single largest component is methane.

Coastal Protection

Measures put in place as a defence against coastal flooding and erosion.


In ecology, a community is any naturally occurring group of two or more populations of different species occupying the same geographical area.


Capable of being composted and used as compost.


Is the purposeful biodegradation by micro-organisms of organic matter in refuse material.


The point at which one stream or river converges and unites with another.


The rational use of the environment to ensure the preservation and careful management of natural resources.


A contaminant is a substance present in nature due to human activity, that would not otherwise be there.

Continental Shelf

A comparatively shallow zone that borders the continents and separates them from deeper regions.

Continental Slope

The portion of the continental shelf beginning at the outer edge of the continental shelf and descending to greater depths.

Cosmic Rays

Energetic particles originating from outer space that impinge on Earth's atmosphere.

Crop Rotation

A practice of planting different crops in different seasons to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests as well as to avoid excessive depletion of soil nutrients.

Crown of thorns Starfish

The Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci), receiving its name from venomous thorn-like spines that cover its body, is the second largest sea star. It is nocturnal and preys upon coral polyps.


Animals, mostly aquatic, such as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. A few groups have adapted to life on land.


Is natural gas, trapped in underground coal seams by water and ground pressure. Its single largest component is methane.

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